What are Wind Energy Project Finance Models

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Written By AltFin

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Key Points:

Definition: Wind energy finance is the process of obtaining financial resources for the development, installation, and maintenance of wind power facilities.

Capital Structure: It comprises various financing sources such as equity investments, loans, and government incentives to facilitate project execution.

Objective: To increase the deployment of wind energy, contributing to clean power generation and environmental sustainability.

What is project finance in wind farm projects?

Project finance in the wind energy industry is commonly used because wind farms, being capital projects, require significant upfront capital investments, similarly to other renewable energy finance types.​

By bringing together multiple investors and lenders, project finance allows these projects to secure the necessary funding to move forward.​

Additionally, wind energy projects often have long payback periods, and project finance allows for the cash flows from the project to be used to repay investors and lenders.(1)(2)(3)

wind turbines energy

What financing options are available for wind energy projects?

Equity financing

Equity financing involves investors contributing capital to a wind energy project in exchange for an ownership stake in the project.​

Equity investors often require a higher rate of return than lenders, but this also means they take on a higher level of risk.​

Equity financing can come from a variety of sources, including individual investors, institutional investors, and private equity firms.

Tax equity financing

Tax equity financing is a type of financing that allows investors to take advantage of federal and state tax credits for renewable energy projects.​

In tax equity financing, an investor contributes funds to a project in exchange for the right to take advantage of the tax credits generated by the project.​

In many cases, tax equity investors are large corporations that have a significant tax liability and are looking for ways to offset this liability.

Debt financing

Debt financing involves borrowing funds from a lender to finance a wind energy project. Lenders can include commercial banks, development banks, and other financial institutions.​

Debt financing typically has a lower rate of return than equity financing, but it also comes with less risk. In many cases, wind energy projects use a combination of equity and debt financing.​

two female engineers on a wind farm

What is the capital stack?

Definition of capital stack 

The capital stack is the combination of financing sources used to fund a wind energy project.

The capital stack can include equity financing, debt financing, and tax equity financing.​

The capital stack is typically structured in a way that prioritizes the repayment of certain investors or lenders before others.

How is the capital stack used in wind energy project finance?

In wind energy project finance, the capital stack is used to allocate financial risk and returns between different investors and lenders.​

The order of repayment is typically structured so that equity investors are at the bottom of the stack, followed by tax equity investors and then debt lenders.​

This structure prioritizes the repayment of debt lenders, who often have lower returns than equity investors, before returning capital to equity investors.

What is the ideal capital stack for a wind energy project?

The ideal capital stack for a wind energy project will depend on a variety of factors, including the project’s size, the wind resource in the project area, and the financing options available.​

Generally, wind energy projects will aim to have a capital stack that includes a mix of equity financing, tax equity financing, and debt financing.

What are the detailed costs involved in wind energy projects?

Turbine costs

The cost of wind turbines is typically one of the largest expenses for wind energy projects.​

Turbine costs can vary depending on the size and type of turbine being used but can range from $1 million to $5 million per turbine.​

In some cases, wind energy projects may choose to use refurbished turbines to reduce costs.

Transmission costs

Transmission costs involve the cost of building or upgrading transmission infrastructure to transport the energy generated by a wind project to the grid.​

Transmission costs can vary depending on the distance between the wind farm and the grid, the existing transmission infrastructure, and the capacity of the transmission lines needed to connect the project to the grid.

Permitting and land costs

Permitting and land costs involve the fees and expenses associated with obtaining permits and securing land for the wind energy project.​

Permitting costs can include fees for environmental studies, assessments, and permits from local, state, and federal government agencies.​

Land costs can also be significant, particularly in areas with high demand for renewable energy projects.

wind turbines at dusk

How do tax credits and incentives affect wind energy project finance?

Investment tax credits

Investment tax credits are federal tax incentives (USA data) that provide credit to investors for a percentage of the cost of a qualified renewable energy project.​

The investment tax credit for wind energy projects is currently set at 26%, with plans to reduce to 22% in 2023.​

This tax credit can be used to offset tax liability or sold to tax equity investors to raise additional financing for the project.

Production tax credits

Production tax credits are federal tax incentives that provide a credit for each kilowatt-hour of electricity generated by a qualified renewable energy project.​

The production tax credit for wind energy projects is currently set at 1.5 cents per kilowatt-hour, and this credit can be claimed for the first 10 years of a project’s operation.

Eligibility for tax credits and incentives

Wind energy projects must meet specific criteria to be eligible for federal tax credits and incentives. These criteria often include project size, location, and the source of financing.​

Working with experienced wind development professionals and staying up to date on relevant regulations and policies from organizations like the Department of Energy and the IRS is crucial to ensure eligibility for these tax incentives.


Overall, securing financing for wind projects involves a range of complex and interrelated factors, from detailed cost assessments to navigating the tax equity market.​

With the federal government’s recent push to increase investment in renewable energy and efficient energy projects, including a proposed $40 billion investment in offshore wind development, US offshore wind developers and lenders are more eager than ever to reach financial close on wind projects.(4)(5)

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  1. Energy.gov, Wind Energy Basics, retrieved from https://www.energy.gov/eere/wind/wind-energy-basics
  2. International Renewable Energy Agency, Wind energy, retrieved from https://www.irena.org/Energy-Transition/Technology/Wind-energy
  3. U.S. Department of Energy, Advantages and Challenges of Wind Energy, retrieved from https://www.energy.gov/eere/wind/advantages-and-challenges-wind-energy
  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Wind Energy in the United States: Current Practice and Opportunities, retrieved from https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/68227.pdf
  5. Wind Europe, Finance and investment, retrieved from https://windeurope.org/policy/topics/finance/